Review of related literature in tourism industry

Although the percentage of delayed arrivals was also higher at rural com- munities than at larger communities, the difference was not as substantial.

Part of this improvement likely resulted from the recent trend of Source: But in addition, the U. Unit revenues, or revenue per available seat mile, are calculated as operating revenues excluding transport revenues divided by total available seat miles.

The decline in flights in recent years was not uniform across all U. The same overall pattern of profit and loss is evident if looking at net income which includes the effects of non-operating revenues and expenses, taxes, and interest rather than operating income.

Despite the substantial reduction in the number of flights sincethe number of available seat miles has been largely unchanged. Non-hub and EAS airports experienced a smaller decline 8. Each quintile contains approximately the same number of passengers, but the number of city-pair markets differs.

Chapter 7 liquidation or Chapter 11 reorganization.

Access to commercial air service helps connect existing businesses and community members with economic opportunities around the globe through enterprises such as tourism and the just-in-time delivery industry. When adjusted for stage length and seat size, smaller aircraft such as regional jets are gener- ally more fuel intensive than larger aircraft, so airlines reduced the miles flown of fuel-inefficient smaller aircraft while increasing the miles flown of fuel-efficient larger aircraft Morrison, Bonnefoy, and Hansman, Ancillary revenue collected by U.

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Service quality is related to the level of airline competition at an airport. In response to these factors, a recent study suggests that airlines made strategic Source: The strategy resulted in an overall small number of domestic flights and a concentration of the remaining flights at large-hub airports.

Commercial air service to cities and regions across the United States and the world Review of related literature in tourism industry viewed as a critical resource by local economic development officials.

The report also found this was accompanied by a decline in overall domestic seat capacity offered by commercial carriers.

Several applied and academic studies have found positive and significant relationships between increased access to commercial air service and factors related to economic development in local Source: By analyzing the smaller airports that experienced reduced domestic flights in recent years, Wittman and Swelbar developed a taxonomy that could be used to identify airports which may be at risk of future service loss.

Exhibit shows U. The main external shocks to the U. Exhibit shows the change in the number of flights at five airline hubs that experienced particularly drastic service decreases in recent years. Bureau of Transportation Statistics Exhibit Wittman and Swelbar b examined recent commercial airline domestic scheduling trends, with particular emphasis on trends at smaller airports defined as non- small- and medium-hub airports.

In addition to increasing passenger fares, airlines increased revenue by adopting ancillary fees to recapture some revenue lost because of reduced demand for air travel and to offset increased fuel costs.

Thus, for certain smaller communities, sustainable service, without some form of government intervention, may be unachievable in the long term. Airlines often look to reduce service at airports serving smaller communities first because the opportunity for profit at these airports is smaller because the population base of potential travelers is smaller.

In other cases, network airline service from smaller airports to connecting hub airports was terminated entirely and LCCs or ULCCs began service from the smaller airports to vacation destinations or other smaller airports. The share of the continental U.

In some cases, carriers exited markets when incentives or subsidies ended. Change in flights from small- and non-hub airports to airline hub airports, vs.

The influence of the price of fuel and the reduced demand for air travel due to the economic slowdown and airline consolidation can be seen in the dra- matic decline in the number of domestic flights operated by U. Though not shown in the exhibits above, the recent sharp decline in oil prices in the second half of has clearly benefitted the major air carriers, but there is not yet any indication that they plan to increase capacity as a result.

Although smaller communities may try to reduce risk, there will still be uncertainty because of factors outside the Literature Review of Airline Industry Trends 16 Effects of Airline Industry Changes on Small- and Non-Hub Airports control of the community.

Literature Review of Airline Industry Trends 23 By reducing capacity, carriers were able to increase load factors on flights. The strong evidence of the link between commercial air service availability and local eco- nomic development helps explain the sense of urgency among many local officials in trying to retain or attract new service to their communities.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics recent months are preliminary and subject to restatement ; Energy Information Administration Exhibit These periods were selected because the price of fuel changed sub- stantially, while the potential effect of exogenous events e.

The new strategy entailed rationalizing capacity to reduce operating losses and increase yields by increasing load factors.

These responses allowed the industry to return to profitability in the past few years. However, local officials are often quite limited in the tools and resources that can be used to solve the public policy problems of growing their market or stopping leakage to other airports.

Pittsburgh International Airport PIT experienced the largest negative change; in there were no flights from small- and non-hub airports to PIT in contrast to the 7, flights in RECENT TRENDS OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM RESEARCH LITERATURE ON CHINA: A CONTENT ANALYSIS By Yang Chen Recent Trends of Hospitality and Tourism Research Literature on China: A complex in the tourism industry in China, tourism-related research becomes a critical.

Review Of Related Literature In Tourism Industry. Tourism Trends The travel and tourism industry is the world’s largest and most diverse industry. In a report of World Tourism Organization entitled International Tourism, it has pointed out the desire to standardize the definitions in the tourism industry throughout the world.

review of related studies A Literature Review On Adventure Tourism Tourism Essay Adventure tourism has become more popular as an outdoor recreation activity in the tourism industry (Travel Industry Association of America, cited ).

Selective forms of tourism in the function of sustainable development of tourism in the Republic of Croatia are possibilities by which Croatian small entrepreneurs will advance business activities of catering industry, and on the basis of which they will develop these services in the future.1/5(1).

Literature Review on Strategically Important Tourism Destinations and Attractions FINAL DOCUMENT Prepared for Industry Canada - Tourism Branch. 1. Domestic Tourism: residents of a country visiting destinations in the own country 2.

Inbound Tourism: visits to a country by non-residents. 3. Outbound Tourism: residents of a country visiting destinations in other countries. 4. Internal Tourism: the combination of domestic tourism and inbound tourism, 5.

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