Despite your attempts to present your ideas in a logical and comprehensive way, first drafts are frequently a mess. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Indicate the structure of the research paper. As you can see, crucial pieces of information are missing: Since every paper has its unique results and findings, the Discussion section differs in its length, shape, and structure.
Proper citation of references will be described later. Each result should only be presented once. Evaluating the medical literature Part II: Top of Page Describe the organism s used in the study.
Indicate the importance of the work by stating applications, recommendations, and implications. Evaluating the medical literature Part I: What are the studies major findings?
The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. The failure or inability of an individual to produce functional gametes under a given set of environmental conditions is known as sterility.
Do not repeat extensively in the text the data you have presented in tables and figures. Our on-site scientific writing workshops can range from hours to several days in length. After institutional review board approval and with written informed consent, a controlled, double-blinded study was conducted with male and female patients, ASA status I to III, randomly assigned into 2 groups with the aid of a computer-generated table of random numbers.
Why is Table 1 in most studies? That is, were the effects on reproduction, survival, dry weight or something else? Be simple and clear Present summaries of large data sets means with standard error or deviation Detailed data should be reported in tables or figures and not as lists in the text Only give the data which is relevant to the paper Refer to every table or figure in the text Each figure or table should be identified by a unique number e.
If one journal does not take your paper, you will take advantage of the feedback and resubmit again.
Moreover, outlining the scope of your research by showing the limitations, weaknesses, and assumptions is essential and adds modesty to your image as a scientist. In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods.
If specimens were collected for study, where and when that material was collected are stated.
To show our results, we first introduce all components of experimental system and then describe the outcome of infections. Spatial variation in seed predation may contribute to spatial variation in plant frequency by reducing seed supply sufficiently to limit seedling emergence more at one location than another LoudaAnderson By looking at only the Introduction and Conclusions sections, a reader should have a good idea of what the researcher has investigated and discovered even though the specific details of how the work was done would not be known.
All writers have a set of problems that are specific to them, i. Discuss your overall conclusion and the major impact of your study. Addressing potential doubts will save you from painful comments about the wrong interpretation of your results and will present you as a thoughtful and considerate researcher.
For some studies, age may be an important factor. Interestingly, recent studies have reported that the Materials and Methods section is the only section in research papers in which passive voice predominantly overrides the use of the active voice [ 5789 ].
Can You Proofread This? Having a list of journal priorities can help you quickly resubmit your paper if your paper is rejected.The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities.
One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. May 08, · The case for structuring the discussion of scientific papers. Structure is the most difficult part of writing, no matter whether you are writing a novel, a play, a poem, a government report, or a scientific paper.
1 and either consciously or unconsciously know the function of each section. This section describes an organizational structure commonly used to report experimental research in many scientific disciplines, the IMRAD format: Introduction, Methods, Results, And Discussion.
Although the main headings are standard for many scientific fields, details may vary; check with your instructor, or, if submitting an article to a journal, refer to the instructions to authors.
Explaining the meaning of the results to the reader is the purpose of the discussion section of a research paper. There are elements of the discussion that should be included and other things that should be about what you will write in the discussion section from How to Write an Effective Discussion.
The Difficulties of Writing a Discussion Section. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.
That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. Results. The results section is the part of the scientific paper around which everything else is built.
The introduction describes why the results needed to be obtained, the methods how they were obtained and the discussion explains the results.Download